The malmquist TFP index measures the TFP change between two data points by calculating the ratio of the distances of each data point relative to a commn technology.



Fare, R.,  Grosskopf, S., Lindgren, B., Roos, P., 1992, "Productivity Changes in Swedish Pharamacies 1980- 1989: A Non-Parametric Malmquist Approach," Journal of Productivity Analysis, 3, 85-101. untitled2.JPG


Fare, R.,  Grosskopf, S., Norriss, M., Zhang, Z., 1994, "Productivity growth, Technical progress and efficiency change in industrialized countries," The American Economic Review, 84, 66-83. untitled2.JPG 

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